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Open Access Open Badges Review Article

Recent Advances in Real-Time Musical Effects, Synthesis, and Virtual Analog Models

Jyri Pakarinen1*, Vesa Välimäki1, Federico Fontana2, Victor Lazzarini3 and Jonathan S Abel4

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Signal Processing and Acoustics, Aalto University School of Electrical Engineering, 02150 Espoo, Finland

2 Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Udine, 33100 Udine, Italy

3 Sound and Music Technology Research Group, National University of Ireland, Maynooth, Ireland

4 CCRMA, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-8180, USA

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EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing 2011, 2011:940784  doi:10.1155/2011/940784

The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at: http://asp.eurasipjournals.com/content/2011/1/940784

Received:8 October 2010
Accepted:5 February 2011
Published:28 February 2011

© 2011 Jyri Pakarinen et al.

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This paper reviews some of the recent advances in real-time musical effects processing and synthesis. The main emphasis is on virtual analog modeling, specifically digital emulation of vintage delay and reverberation effects, tube amplifiers, and voltage-controlled filters. Additionally, adaptive effects algorithms and sound synthesis and processing languages are discussed.

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